According to Michael Frese from the University of Amsterdam, and Wolfgang Kring, Andrea Soose, and Jeannette Zempel, University of Giessen, initiative is defined as “taking an active and self-starting approach to work, and going beyond what is formally required in a given job.” This seems relatively straightforward under relatively predictable business conditions, but in uncertain times, taking initiative can be challenging.

Why? First, it’s hard to “take an active approach to work” when you don’t know what your work is supposed to be right now. Second, what may have been formally required of you a month or two ago may no longer be relevant. Third, during these difficult times, it can be hard to find the motivation to set and achieve goals, especially when the future feels uncertain.

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